CURSO DE PRODUCCIÓN 02.
Duración de un tema, compases y estructura.
Para mi (puede que sea algo personal) una canción no debe durar mas de 3 minutos y medio por varios motivos.
* Las emisoras de radio no emiten un tema de mas de esta duración.
* Esta comprobado que la mente humana tiene un limite de atención que no supera los 3 minutos, si queremos que alguien que no tiene nada que ver con nuestro estilo preste atención a nuestro tema no debemos superar este limite ya que no prestara la misma atención que a un tema compacto donde los cambios se suceden correlativa mente con una dinámica especifica,
* Mas de 4 minutos aburre.
En la música hay mucho de matemáticas,tanto en armonías como en notas correlativas hay unas distancias que se respetan dependiendo de la tonalidad en la que este la composición pero eso lo veremos mas adelante, la manera de medir la música es mediante compases que se dividen en partes llamadas tiempos o pulsos.
Hay tres tipos de compás, según el número de tiempos:
* «compás binario» (de dos tiempos) o «compás cuaternario» (de cuatro tiempos). Esta denominación tiende a desaparecer, y actualmente se lo considera un tipo de compás binario.
* «compás ternario» (de tres tiempos).
* «compás irregular» (de un número no entero de tiempos)
La mayoría de composiciones actuales son en binario y para que todos nos entendamos en un compás binario entran dos cajas, en cada compás suelen sonar dos cajas, y digo suele porque claro esta que en la música no hay normas y cada uno puede variar estas directrices a su modo.
Conociendo la manera de medir cada compás vamos a hablar de estructuras. A continuación las diferentes partes de una canción y su medida orientativa.
- Intro: Como su nombre indica es el comienzo de la canción, se compone de algunos sonidos de la instrumental que te van llevando a que rompa el ritmo en el estribillo o en la primera estrofa. Esta parte de la canción suele incluir los «Créditos» donde se especifica el productor, el cantante o se hace una pequeña referencia a la canción que va a sonar a continuación, estos «creditos» tambien pueden ir al final.
- Estrofa: Contiene el peso de la canción, el argumento. Consta de 12 o 16 dependiendo de las estrofas incluidas en el tema, jugaremos con estas dos medidas para equilibrar el tiempo total del tema ya que dependiendo de la velocidad del tema, la duración de un compás sera mayor o menor.
- Puente: Parte de transición entre la estrofa y el estribillo, de contenido genérico. Su posición en la canción puede estar delante del estribillo (realizando una progresión musical) o detráspróxima estrofas. La duración puede ser de 4 compases u 8. Hay una variación del puente que se sitúa al final de la canción que rompe con la estructura básica y sirve de «subidon final» hasta que suena el ultimo estribillo.
- Estribillo: Normalmente es una estrofa de 4 compases que se repite, osea, en total 8 compases de dos bloques. El contenido resume la temática de la canción. Se repite mínimo un par de veces en la estructura total
- Break: No todas las canciones incluyen esta parte que se encarga de dar un respiro a la canción induciendo la entrada de las con unos 4 u 8 compases de contenido musical.
Podréis comprobar con esta información que el 80% de la música que escucháis sigue estas directrices y verificarlo es tan fácil como contar las cajas y tener un poco de oído para diferenciar las partes de la que consta cualquier tema.
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